Pain, Chronic & Acute

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  • Abrams, D.I., Couey, P., Shade, S.B., Kelly, M.E., and Benowitz, N.L. (2011, December). Cannabinoid–Opioid Interaction in Chronic Pain. Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 90(6), 844-51. Retrieved from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/wol1/doi/10.1038/clpt.2011.188/full.

  • Borgelt, L.M., Franson, K.L., Nussbaum, A.M., Wang, G.S. (2013, February). The pharmacologic and clinical effects of medical cannabis. Pharmacotherapy, 33(2), 195-209. Retrieved from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/wol1/doi/10.1002/phar.1187/full.

  • Bosshard, S.C., Grandjean, J., Schroeter, A., Baltes, C., Zeilhofer, H.U., and Rudin, M. (2012, July). Hyperalgesia by low doses of the local anesthetic lidocaine involves cannabinoid signaling: An fMRI study in mice. Pain, 153(7), 1450-8. Retrieved from http://journals.lww.com/pain/pages/articleviewer.aspx?year=2012&issue=07000&article=00019&type=abstract.

  • Burston, J.J., Sager, D.R., Shao, P., Bai, M., King, E., Brailsford, L., Turner, J.M., Hathway, G.J., Bennett, A.J., Walsh, D.A., Kendall, D.A., Lichtman, A., and Chapman, V. (2013, November 25). Cannabinoid CB2 Receptors Regulate Central Sensitization and Pain Responses Associated with Osteoarthritis of the Knee Joint. PLOS One, 8(11), e80440. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3840025/.

  • Carlini, B.H., Garrett, S.B., and Carter, G.T. (2015, September). Medicinal Cannabis: A Survey Among Health Care Providers in Washington State. The American Journal of Hospice & Palliative Care. Retrieved from http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/1049909115604669.

  • Cottler, L. B., Abdallah, A. B., Cummings, S. M., Barr, J., Banks, R., & Forchheimer, R. (2011). Injury, Pain, and Prescription Opioid Use Among Former National Football League (NFL) Players. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 116(1-3), 188–194. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3095672/.

  • Cravatt, B.F., and Lichtman, A.H. (2004, October). The endogenous cannabinoid system and its role in nociceptive behavior. Journal of Neurobiology, 61(1), 149-60. Retrieved from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/neu.20080/epdf.

  • Emerich, B.L., Ferreira, R.C.M., Cordeiro, M.N., Borges, M.H., Pimenta, A.M.C., Figueiredo, S.G., Duarte, I.D.G., and de Lima, M.E. (2016). δ-Ctenitoxin-Pn1a, a Peptide from Phoneutria nigriventer Spider Venom, Shows Antinociceptive Effect Involving Opioid and Cannabinoid Systems, in Rats. Toxins, 8(4), 106. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4848632/.

  • Fine, P.G., and Rosenfeld, M.J. (2014). Cannabinoids for Neuropathic Pain. Current Pain and Headache Reports, 18(10), 451. Retrieved from http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11916-014-0451-2.

  • Gerak, L.R., and France, C.P. (2016, May). Combined treatment with morphine and Δ9-tetrahydrocannibinol (THC) in rhesus monkeys: antinociceptive tolerance and withdrawal. The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 357(2), 357-66. Retrieved from http://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/357/2/357.long.

  • Hammell D, Zhang L, Ma F, Abshire S, McIlwrath S, Stinchcomb A, Westlund K. Transdermal cannabidiol reduces inflammation and pain-related behaviours in a rat model of arthritis. Eur J Pain. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2016 Jul 1. Published in final edited form as: Eur J Pain. 2016 Jul; 20(6): 936–948. Published online 2015 Oct 30. doi: 10.1002/ejp.818. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4851925/

  • Hirsh, A.T., Kratz, A.L., Engel, J.M., and Jensen, M.P. (2011). Survey Results of Pain Treatments in Adults with Cerebral Palsy. American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation / Association of Academic Physiatrists, 90(3), 207–216. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3036542/.

  • Kinsey, S.G., Mahadevan, A., Zhao, B., Sun, H., Naidu, P. S., Razdan, R.K., Selley, D.E., Damaj, M.I., and Lichtman, A.H. (2011). The CB2 cannabinoid receptor-selective agonist O-3223 reduces pain and inflammation without apparent cannabinoid behavioral effects. Neuropharmacology, 60(2-3), 244–251. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3021987/.

  • Lee, M.C., Ploner, M., Wiech, K., Bingel, Ul, Wanigasekera, V., Brooks, J., Menon, D.K., and Tracey, I. (2013, January). Amygdala activity contributes to the dissociative effect of cannabis on pain perception. Pain, 154(1), 124-134. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3549497/.

  • Li, M.H., Suchland, K.L., and Ingram, S. (2016, December). Compensatory activation of cannabinoid CB2 receptor inhibition of GABA release in the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) in inflammatory pain. Journal of Neuroscience, 1310-16. Retrieved from http://www.jneurosci.org/content/early/2016/12/09/JNEUROSCI.1310-16.2016.1.

  • Mark Wallace, Gery Schulteis, J Hampton Atkinson, Tanya Wolfson, Deborah Lazzaretto, Heather Bentley, Ben Gouaux, Ian Abramson; Dose-dependent Effects of Smoked Cannabis on Capsaicin-induced Pain and Hyperalgesia in Healthy Volunteers. Anesthesiology 2007;107(5):785-796. doi: 10.1097/01.anes.0000286986.92475.b7. Retrieved from http://anesthesiology.pubs.asahq.org/article.aspx?articleid=1931753

  • Pain: Hope Through Research (2015, September 4). National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. Retrieved from https://www.ninds.nih.gov/Disorders/Patient-Caregiver-Education/Hope-Through-Research/Pain-Hope-Through-Research.

  • Perron, B.E., Bohnert, K., Perone, A.K., Bonn-Miller, M.O., & Ilgen, M. (2015). Use of Prescription Pain Medications Among Medical Cannabis Patients: Comparisons of Pain Levels, Functioning, and Patterns of Alcohol and Other Drug Use. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 76(3), 406–413. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4440298/.

  • Poli P, Crestani F, Salvadori C, Valenti I, Sannino C. Medical Cannabis in Patients with Chronic Pain: Effect on Pain Relief, Pain Disability, and Psychological aspects. A Prospective Non randomized Single Arm Clinical Trial. Clin Ter. 2018;169(3):e102-e107. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29938740

  • Roberts, J.D., Gennings, C., and Shih, M. (2006, January). Synergistic affective analgesic interaction between delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and morphine. European Journal of Pharmacology, 530(1-2), 54-8. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S001429990501215X.

  • Russo, E.B., and Hohmann, A.G. (2012, September 22). Role of cannabinoids in pain management. Comprehensive Treatment of Chronic Pain by Medical, Interventional, and Integrative Approaches, 181-197. Retrieved from http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F978-1-4614-1560-2_18.

  • Staahl, C., Olesen, A.E., Andresen, T., Arendt-Nielsen, L., and Drewes, A.M. (2009, September). Assessing efficacy of non-opioid analgesics in experimental pain models in healthy volunteers- an updated review. British Pharmacological Society, 68(3), 322-341. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2766472/.

  • Ueberall MA, Essner U, Mueller-Schwefe GH. Effectiveness and tolerability of THC:CBD oromucosal spray as add-on measure in patients with severe chronic pain: analysis of 12-week open-label real-world data provided by the German Pain e-Registry. J Pain Res. 2019 May 20;12:1577-1604. doi: 10.2147/JPR.S192174. eCollection 2019. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31190969

  • Urits I, Borchart M, Hasegawa M, Kochanski J, Orhurhu V, Viswanath O. An Update of Current Cannabis-Based Pharmaceuticals in Pain Medicine Pain Ther. 2019 Jun; 8(1): 41–51. Published online 2019 Feb 5. doi: 10.1007/s40122-019-0114-4. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6514017/

  • Wakley, A.A., Wiley, J.L., and Craft, RM. (2014). Sex differences in antinociceptive tolerance to delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in the rat. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 143, 22–28. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4161674/.

  • Ware, M.A., Doyle, C.R., Woods, R., Lynch, M.E., and Clark, A.J. (2003, March). Cannabis use for chronic non-cancer pain: results of a prospective survey. Pain, 102(1-2). Retrieved from http://journals.lww.com/pain/Abstract/2003/03000/Cannabis_use_for_chronic_non_cancer_pain__results.23.aspx.

  • Ware, M.A., Wang, T., Shapiro, S., and Collet, J.P. (2015, September 15). Cannabis for the Management of Pain: Assessment of Safety Study (COMPASS). The Journal of Pain. Retrieved from http://www.jpain.org/article/S1526-5900(15)00837-8/fulltext.

  • Webb, C. W., & Webb, S. M. (2014). Therapeutic Benefits of Cannabis: A Patient Survey. Hawai’i Journal of Medicine & Public Health, 73(4), 109–111. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3998228/.

  • Wilsey, B., Marcotte, T. D., Deutsch, R., Gouaux, B., Sakai, S., & Donaghe, H. (2013). Low Dose Vaporized Cannabis Significantly Improves Neuropathic Pain. The Journal of Pain : Official Journal of the American Pain Society, 14(2), 136–148. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3566631/.

  • Wilsey, B., Marcotte, T.D., Deutsch, R., Zhao, H., Prasad, H., and Phan, A. (2016) An Exploratory Human Laboratory Experiment Evaluating Vaporized Cannabis in the Treatment of Neuropathic Pain from Spinal Cord Injury and Disease. Journal of Pain, doi: 10.1016/j.pain.2016.05.010. Retrieved from http://www.jpain.org/article/S1526-5900(16)30072-4/fulltext.

  • Woodhams, S.G., Sagar, D.R., Burston, J.J., and Chapman, V. (2015). The role of the endocannabinoid system in pain. Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology, 227, 119-43. Retrieved from http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F978-3-662-46450-2_7.